Whileaccidental or intentional oral ingestion of tire crumb and other infill materials is not being a major pathway for most users; this may not be the case for young children. The potential risk of direct ingestion has been the subject of numerous studies and there hasn’t been any notable cancer, chronic or cancer adverse health effects identified at levels of exposure ranging from chronic to acute levels. Oral exposure can also occur through hand to mouth action following contact with Artificial Grass.
This kind of risk is normally related to high degrees of uncertainty and variability as the exposure depends on various factors such as hand to play ground contact, the transfer rate of chemicals in the infill material from the hands to the mouth, nature of hand to mouth activity, the frequency of field use. Regardless, there is no evidence that contact with hazardous substances such as lead and PAHs found in tire rubber crumb via contact between the hand and mouth could have a negative impact on health. Generally, studies focused on the end points for both adults and children have reached the conclusion that granulated tire rubber found in artificial turf carries a low risk to human wellbeing through oral exposure. Those who use Artificial Grass may be exposed to the chemicals released from its components through skin absorption. None the less, the natural protection provided by the skin and the short contact time with tire crumb prevent any significant uptake of toxin. As a matter of fact, assessment studies aimed at establishing the level of risk have shown that the concentrations of chemicals absorbed through dermal uptake were too low to have a negative impact on health. This includes indicated sensitization or allergic response for adults and children playing on artificial grass fields.
Experiments monitoring biological activity have also shown that the level of the biomarker (1-hydroxypyrene) for exposure to PAH in urine samples for adult players did not increase after significant contact with granulated rubber on artificial turf. This suggests that uptake via the dermis is negligible. Inhalation of volatile organic compounds and micro particles released from the tire crumb of artificial fields is another potential avenue for exposure, one that cannot be overlooked given the increased inhalation rates of players. Field monitoring apparatus revealed that the levels of toxic chemicals and the health risk from indoor artificial turf were below the level of concern in indoor facilities with proper ventilation. However, the cumulative risk from long term use could present a significant cancer risk for individuals with more than 30 years of continuous activity. This risk does not apply for inconsistent users present in the air above the artificial turf were insufficient to constitute a significant health risk.